Kamis, 10 November 2011
CLIMATE CHANGE AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR
Carbon dioxide was not such a bad reputation. This gas is needed by plants to perform photosynthesis and, like other greenhouse gases, is useful to maintain the temperature of the earth at night by arresting partial beam of light behind the sun. The temperature of the earth is also affected by other natural factors such as changes in solar and volcanic eruptions are great.However, the concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases rose dramatically after the introduction of industrialization and since humans began to use fossil fuels, which releases more carbon into the atmosphere. The more beam is trapped behind the sun and the earth's temperature rose by an average of about 0.4 degrees Celsius since the 1970s. Nine of the 10 warmest years in history occurred in the last decade, even in 2010 was recorded as the warmest year, in line with 2005.Many people initially opposed the existence of climate change and question the human role in it. After reviewing hundreds of studies from around the world, experts who are members of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in 2007 agreed that human activity is the main cause of global warming. Natural factors alone are not strong enough to explain the warming soon. Earth's temperature rise should not exceed 2 degrees by 2025 to limit the evil consequences for human life.Warmer climate will affect water availability and increased intensity of extreme weather conditions such as storms and droughts. Many farmers in Indonesia have felt this in their difficulty to estimate the time of planting with an increasingly uncertain season.Layers of polar ice melt and will also lead to rising sea levels. Indonesia has 55,000 kilometers of coast, the second longest in the world after Canada, and sea level rise this will cause many difficulties in densely populated areas and the disappearance of small islands.Not only humans, climate change also affects plants and animals that have low limits of ecological adaptation. Some may be able to move and adapt, but others will become extinct. Polar bears, for example, will not be able to move anywhere if the ice had melted where they live.The international community has begun steps to address climate change. Under the Kyoto Protocol, developed countries - except the United States - agreed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This reduction can be done by financing projects in developing countries to reduce their emissions, for example by using cleaner technologies. This is in accordance with the principle of "common but differentiated responsibility", or common but differentiated responsibilities.Kyoto Protocol will expire in 2012 and its success is questionable. Therefore, the international community is preparing a successor agreement that could provide a better solution, for example by including a scheme for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD +). The deal is also expected to provide benefits to a growing number of countries.Indonesia became the first developing country to provide a concrete target of cutting greenhouse gas emissions. President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono said at the G20 meeting in 2009 that Indonesia would reduce emissions by 26 percent from the level of business-as-usual in 2020 with its own resources and 41 percent with international assistance. One way taken is through REDD + mechanism, which was developed to be ready to be applied after 2012.